F1 is student visa and is required if you want to pursue degree course like BS,MS/MBA or PhD in USA. It’s not a work visa.
J1 visa is for work and study related exchange programs.
Sometimes, a J-1 program will require that the beneficiary spend at least two years outside of the US (not in Countries Like Canada or UK) before being permitted to switch to a different non-immigrant visa or to permanent residency.
This program is administered by the US information agency (USIA), a division of the Department of State
To Obtain J1 Waiver
- In some situations, a waiver may be granted if the 2-year departure would cause exceptional hardship to an applicant’s family.
- If the applicant imparted some benefit to the US (in Medicine), or if he participated in the program at his own expense.
- A “no objection” waiver can be issued if an applicant’s home country does not object to the applicant’s decision not to return home. To apply for this, the applicant must contact his country’s embassy in the US, or if he has returned home, must apply through the foreign office.
- If you can demonstrate a “well-founded fear of political or religious persecution” if forced to return to your country. You may be able to obtain a “Refugee,” “Asylum,” or “Persecution” status.
B1 Visitor for Business; B2 visa or visitor visa for Pleasure is available for coming to the US for business or pleasure. It can be granted from 30 days to 10 years (multiple entries with a maximum of 6 months stay in each visit) Nationals of some countries may be eligible to visit the US for up to 90 days without a visa
L-1 – Intra-company Transfer Visas
L-1 visas are available to workers, executives, managers and specialized employees moving to their employer’s US site. Spouse of L1 visa can work too. Executives and managers holding L-1 visas may be eligible for permanent residency without the need for a labor certification. L-1 visa holders cannot change their employer (they will have to file H1B to change employer). There is NO L-1 transfer.
Permanent Residency-Employment Based (“Green Card”)
Green card holders can work for any employers, there are no restrictions. You can your green card in lottery scheme, via H1-B/L1 path (work related), exceptional persons (like researchers, Noble prize winners etc) or family sponsorship.
First Preference Persons of Extraordinary Ability, Outstanding Professors, and Researchers, and Multinational Executives and Managers
Second Preference Persons Holding Advanced Degrees or Persons of Exceptional Ability in the Sciences, Arts or Business
Third Preference Skilled Workers and Professionals
Fourth Preference Employment Creation Investors